An international contingent of scientists, led by the University of Sydney, has discovered the first microplate in the Indian Ocean-helping identify when the initial collision between India and Eurasia occurred and dating the birth of the Himalayas as occurring 47 million years ago. An international team of scientists has discovered the first oceanic microplate in the Indian Ocean—helping identify when the initial collision between India and Eurasia occurred, leading to the birth of the Himalayas. Although there are at least seven microplates known in the Pacific Ocean, this is the first ancient Indian Ocean microplate to be discovered. Radar beam images from an orbiting satellite have helped put together pieces of this plate tectonic jigsaw and pinpointed the age for the collision, whose precise date has divided scientists for decades. Reported in Earth and Planetary Science Letters , the team of Australian and US scientists believe the collision occurred 47 million years ago when India and Eurasia initially smashed into each other. The Mammerickx Microplate rotation is revealed by a rotating pattern of grooves and hills that turn the topography of the ocean floor into a jagged landscape. The new research shows that 50 million years ago, India was travelling northwards at speeds of some 15 centimetres a year—close to the plate tectonic speed limit. Soon after it slammed into Eurasia crustal stresses along the mid-ocean ridge between India and Antarctica intensified to breaking point. The discovery was made using satellite radar beam mapping from space, which measures the bumps and dips of the sea surface caused by water being attracted by submarine mountains and valleys, combined with conventional marine geophysical data. Co-author Professor Sandwell from the Scripps Institution of Oceanography said humans had explored and mapped remote lands extensively but the same was not true for our ocean basins.
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Beyond the specific topic of natural 14 C, it is hoped that this account may serve as a metaphor for young scientists, illustrating that just when a scientific discipline may appear to be approaching maturity, unanticipated metrological advances in their own chosen fields, and unanticipated anthropogenic or natural chemical events in the environment, can spawn new areas of research having exciting theoretical and practical implications. This article is about metrology, the science of measurement.
More specifically, it examines the metrological revolutions, or at least evolutionary milestones that have marked the history of radiocarbon dating, since its inception some 50 years ago, to the present. The series of largely or even totally unanticipated developments in the metrology of natural 14 C is detailed in the several sections of this article, together with examples of the consequent emergence of new and fundamental applications in a broad range of disciplines in the physical, social, and biological sciences.
Following the discovery of this year half-life radionuclide in laboratory experiments by Ruben and Kamen, it became clear to W. Libby that 14 C should exist in nature, and that it could serve as a quantitative means for dating artifacts and events marking the history of civilization. The search for natural radiocarbon was itself a metrological challenge, for the level in the living biosphere [ca.
That was but the beginning, however. The year before last marked the 50th anniversary of the first edition of Willard F.
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It was while working in the Kent Laboratory building in the s that Prof. Willard Libby and his UChicago associates developed radiocarbon dating — an innovative method to measure the age of organic materials. Scientists soon used the technique on materials ranging from the dung of a giant sloth from a Nevada cave; seaweed and algae from Monte Verde, Chile, the oldest archaeological site in the Western Hemisphere; the Shroud of Turin; and the meteorite that created the Henbury Craters in northern Australia.
The society will officially recognize the achievement at 4 p. This year marks the 70th anniversary of Libby’s first publication on radiocarbon dating, which appeared in the June 1, issue of Physical Review. The work earned Libby the Nobel Prize in chemistry “for determinations in archaeology, geology, geophysics and other branches of science.
The technique, which measures materials’ content of carbon, quickly made an impact on archaeology and geology.
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The method was developed by physicist Willard Libby at the University of Chicago who received the Nobel Prize for the discovery in The radioactive isotope 14 C is created in the atmosphere by cosmic radiation and is taken up by plants and animals as long as they live. The C method cannot be used on material more than about 50, years old because of this short half-life. Other isotopes are used by geologists to date older material.
This number is called a standard deviation and is a measure of the spread of measurements around the mean average. Radiocarbon dating has had an enormous impact on archaeology around the world since it made it possible to date carbon and wood could be directly without dependence on characteristic artifacts or written historical records. But as more dates became available, Egyptologists, who had hieroglyphic records back thousands of years, began to recognize that C dates were generally too young.
They proved this by showing that C dates of wooden artifacts with cartouches dated royal names did not agree. The explanation was that the physicists had assumed that the amount of C in the atmosphere had been constant, when in fact it had varied over time. The solution came using dendrochronology tree ring dating. Since tree rings provide an annual calendar, and some trees live for thousands of years, by C dating the rings themselves one could correct the radiocarbon dates and calibrate the differences.
The Bristlecone pine trees in the Sierra Nevada mountains made this possible and today there are international tree ring databases and agreed-upon calibration curves.
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Posted By: Jeremiah Fowler May 28, On May 25th I discovered a non password protected Elastic database that was clearly associated with dating apps based on the names of the folders. I also noticed Chinese text inside the database with commands such as:. The strange thing about this discovery was that there were multiple dating applications all storing data inside this database.
Upon further investigation I was able to identify dating apps available online with the same names as those in the database. What really struck me as odd was that despite all of them using the same database, they claim to be developed by separate companies or individuals that do not seem to match up with each other. The Whois registration for one of the sites uses what appears to be a fake address and phone number.
Several of the other sites are registered private and the only way to contact them is through the app once it is installed on your device. Like most people your online persona or user name is usually well crafted over time and serves as a unique cyber fingerprint. Just like a good password many people use it again and again across multiple platforms and services. This makes it extremely easy for someone to find and identify you with very little information.
Nearly each unique username I checked appeared on multiple dating sites, forums, and other public places. The IP and geolocation stored in the database confirmed the location the user put in their other profiles using the same username or login ID. We at Security Discovery always follow a responsible disclosure process when it comes to the data we discover and usually make sure that companies or organizations close access before we publish any story.
Radiocarbon Dating Leads to a New Discovery on an Ancient Manuscript
All rights reserved. Relative techniques were developed earlier in the history of archaeology as a profession and are considered less trustworthy than absolute ones. There are several different methods. In stratigraphy , archaeologists assume that sites undergo stratification over time, leaving older layers beneath newer ones. Archaeologists use that assumption, called the law of superposition, to help determine a relative chronology for the site itself.
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